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What are domains?

What are domains?


Dominio Domini The top-level domain, in English top-level domain TLD for short, is the last part of the internet domain name; is in other words the alphanumeric code that follows the 'point' to the right of the URL; for example, the internet address of the Italian wikipedia is it.wikipedia.org and therefore falls within the top level domain org.

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) currently ranks the top-level domains in three different types:

* Country code top level domains (country code top-level domain or ccTLD): Used by a state or territorial dependence. It consists of two letters, for example jp for Japan and Italy for it, or eu for the European Union;

* Generic top-level domains (generic top-level domain, or gTLD): used (at least in theory) by a particular class of organizations (for example, com for commercial organizations). This suffix is ​​three or more letters. Most gTLDs are available all over the world, but for historical reasons, gov, mil and edu are reserved, respectively, to the government, the army and U.S. educational institutions;

* Top Level Domains infrastructure (infrastructure top-level domain): The top-level domain harp is the only existing one.


Pseudo-top-level domains

Earlier internet was just one of many wide area networks that exist. Computers that are connected to other networks, such as BITNET, CSNET, or UUCP when exchanging data, or e-mail, through the internet (using the appropriate gateway) used with pseudo-domain addresses, type bitnet, CSNET or uucp; However, these are not real top-level domains and therefore do not exist in the DNS server. To date, only the UUCP of these networks is still used, in small part, all other computers use the traditional Internet domains.

The Tor anonymous communication network has a pseudo-domain onion that can only be reached through a Tor client.

TLDs reserved

RFC 2606 reserves the following four top-level domains for specific purposes to ensure that they are in common use in the network:

* Example: reserved for examples;
* Invalid: reserved for use in the domains clearly invalid;
* Localhost: Reserved to avoid conflicts with the traditional use of localhost;
* Test: reserved for testing.

The domain. IT

. It is the national top-level domain (ccTLD) assigned to Italy.

Recording is permissible to organizations and individuals resident in a member state of the European Union, after sending a written request via fax or mail to the Registry, completed in every case in Italian.

The domain. It does not support internationalized domain names.


The first domain. Was that it required the CNR, the application was sent on 23 CNR di Pisa December 1987, and became active in early 1988. On 23 December 1987, the IANA gives management the TLD at the National Center University Computing (CNUCE), an institute of the CNR in Pisa, with head of delegation Stefano Trumpy. From 1992 to 1998 the registration service will be taken care of by the Network Information Service (NIS) of the GARR (known as "GARR-NIS"). In 1997, the proxy passes the Institute for Telematic Applications (IAT), always at the CNR Pisa, born from the need to expand the "Department of Infrastructure Networks for Research" (RIRR) of the same CNUCE.

From the beginning, the policies and rules have been agreed with the industry through various forms. From the initial group named MAIL-ITA, and then, since 1994, ITA-PE, we come to the establishment in 1998 of the Italian Naming Authority until 2005 that will take care 'of the drafting of the rules for the allocation of domains. "It" . This structure differs significantly from the Italian Registration Authority held that the sealing function of the registry of the names and put at his disposal the technical infrastructure necessary to maintain it, therefore including the management of the powers of the authoritative DNS. The Naming Authority shall implement in 1999 a "liberalization" of the ccTLD (removes the limitations of domain names adjustable for organizations of any type), while the responsibility of the Registry goes to the director of the Franco Denoth. In 2002, a merger of several institutions of C.N.R. will give rise to the Institute of Informatics and Telematics, which will consequently delegation. Since 2005 the registry embodies both the regulatory function that the implementation phase, with the establishment of an internal committee, they have been included representatives of the industry. Following the death of Denoth, in April 2006, 17 May 2006, the management of the institution goes pro tempore Enrico Gregori, 51 years old.

Second-level domains reserved and / or special purpose

*. Gov.it is the official second-level domain for the government and public administration.
*. Edu.it has been proposed as the official second-level domain for organizations dealing with education (schools, universities, etc..), But has never been formalized.
*. Difesa.it is the official second-level domain for the Italian armed forces (excluding the Carabinieri)
* Domain names corresponding to provinces (livorno.it) and their abbreviations (li.it), municipalities, regions, etc. are not assignable; are defined geographical domains. You can register third level domains within the same, for example: comune.livorno.it is the domain assigned to the municipality of Livorno, while regione.lazio.it is the domain assigned to the regional government of Lazio. . Co.it and is sometimes used by businesses. Tv.it by television networks.
* There are domain reserved exclusively to government agencies, such as italia.it, italy.it, italie.it so on.

Technical procedures for registration

To register a domain name, up to September 2009, it was necessary to fax a letter of assumption of responsibility (LAR) to ccTLD.it, a document in which the applicant takes civil and criminal liability of the requested domain, this historic date no longer need to send faxes, domains. Newshell IT are recorded in real time.



Source: Wikypedia



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